Imagine you are scripting a speech for a company event. You know that your tone needs to be formal, and you think of the word “thus.” But is it correct to say “and thus”?
It is correct to say “and thus” to show a cause-effect relationship. “Thus,” as a standalone word, is an adverb you can use at different points in a sentence to show that you are doing something in a specific manner. You can use it next to a conjunction like “and” in the middle of a sentence, and it will function as a conjunctive adverb.
To get your writing just right, read on and learn more about how and when you should use “and thus.”
What Does “and Thus” Mean?
“And” is a type of conjunction that joins two pieces of information together. “Thus” is an adverb that shows that the information that follows it is the result of the previous clause.
“And” is the most common conjunction in the English language — a coordinating conjunction. We use it to provide additional information or join two independent clauses together. We also use it to connect items, like “salt and pepper” or “peanut butter and jelly.”
- Jake and Amy are having a baby.
- She was feeling despondent and couldn’t stop crying.
- Charles knew he needed to help, and he came with some soup and chocolate.
“Thus” is an adverb. You can use it to describe the manner, extent, or degree of something. We also use it to set off a statement or provide an example.
- Thus far, Raymond was happy with his new role, having been the captain.
- Thus dressed, I went down to the party.
In contrast to “and,” “thus” is not that common, and many associate it with formal writing and tone. We use it to provide additional information and set off the next part of the sentence/clause. It can also show the cause and effect of the whole sentence.
Using “thus” with “and” together functions as a conjunctive adverb. It shows the result of something (source). Hence, we use it in the middle of a sentence to establish the relationship between two clauses.
- We couldn’t believe how much the company was worth, and, thus, we were rich.
- She accepted the offer and, thus, became the company’s new vice president.
- We needed somewhere cheap, and, thus, we chose the diner.
How Do You Use “and Thus”?
You can use “and thus” in the middle of a sentence. Because “and” is a conjunction, it would be incorrect to use “and thus” at the start of a sentence. Since we use “thus” to show a result, it has to appear directly after “and.”
|Independent clause that establishes a cause||“And Thus”||Independent clause that shows an effect|
|The video was hilarious,||and thus||It became viral.|
|The enemy spent their time fighting through the bush,||and thus||They gave us time to escape.|
|She had studied every evening for an entire year,||and thus||She achieved high honors in her final exams.|
Difference Between “Thus” and “And Thus”
There is no significant difference in meaning between “thus” versus “and thus.” The primary difference between these words is how we use them in a sentence. “Thus” can appear in the middle of a sentence or at the beginning., while “and thus” can only appear in the middle.
“Thus” also requires specific punctuation. We use a comma when using “thus” alone in the middle of a sentence.
- He had been invited to many parties that evening, thus showing his popularity.
- She had done all the work, thus deserving of all the credit.
- Bernadette had looked after the kids the whole day; thus, she deserved a break.
Hence, we either use the conjunction “and” alongside “thus,” or put a comma, semi-colon, or em dash before “thus.” When we use “thus” to show that we are doing something in a specific manner, it can appear at any point in the sentence.
When Can You Use “and Thus”?
As we mentioned earlier, “and thus” should appear in the middle of a sentence as a conjunction. Therefore, it needs to have an independent clause before it to provide context to the statement that will follow.
“Thus” has two different meanings. The first shows that you are doing something in a specific manner or style. This use of “thus” can appear at any point in the sentence as long you use it next to the verb that it is modifying.
- Having walked thus far, I decided it was time for a break.
The second meaning of “thus” shows that whatever follows is a result. When we use “and thus,” we use it as a synonym for this meaning. The sentence’s meaning does not change with the addition of “and.”
- The enemy was retreating, thus giving us time to regroup.
- The enemy was retreating and thus gave us time to regroup.
- The enemy was retreating and, thus, gave us time to regroup.
- His cousin died; thus, they returned the property to his family.
- His cousin died, and thus they returned the property to his family.
“And thus” may be overly formal and complicated, so we can also use “so” as a simpler conjunction.
We cannot use “and thus” to replace “thus” in other contexts when it functions purely as an adverb and not as a conjunctive adverb that sets off the next part of the sentence by emphasizing that it is the result of something else.
In What Context Can You Use “and Thus”?
“And thus” is generally a very formal term, and you should only use it in formal writing or communication. The term is not archaic, but you are more likely to find it in older texts, academic writing, and formal speeches.
Since “and thus” refers to a result, you should only use it when referring to a change due to the initial situation. You would use it in the middle of a sentence explaining cause and effect.
Imagine that you are writing an academic text about an experiment. You may write a concise sentence using “and thus” to show your final thoughts when presenting your findings.
Twelve to eighteen-month-old children speak using one or two words and thus are shown to be in the holophrastic stage of childhood language development.
If you use it in verbal communication, you should know that “and thus” will make you sound quite educated and formal. However, unless you are trying to sound more relatable, there is nothing wrong with using “and thus.”
Using “and Thus” in a Full Sentence
It is fairly simple to use “and thus” in a complete sentence as long as you understand what result you are adding to the sentence. In the first part of the sentence, you’ll need a reason or initial cause, and “and thus” introduces the result.
- Leonard dyed his hair. It started falling out.
- Leonard dyed his hair, and thus it started falling out.
- Raj doesn’t like his new mother-in-law. He didn’t get her a gift for her birthday.
- Raj doesn’t like his new mother-in-law and thus didn’t get her a gift for her birthday.
Since “and thus,” as a conjunctive adverb, provides us information about the result of something, we need to make sure the second clause has a cause-and-effect relationship with the first.
We have to be careful how we use “and thus” in the middle of a sentence. It has specific requirements regarding where it should appear. First, it can appear around the main verb.
- He was so upset and thus went to sleep early.
- Sheldon couldn’t believe the gift he had received and thus hugged Penny hard.
- The shoes were a bad fit and thus hurt her feet terribly.
Second, if we are writing in the past tense, we may have to use “to be” verbs like “was” and “were” before “thus” to show actions taking place in a specific order while creating a subject-verb agreement.
Kings were considered the highest powers in the land and were thus representatives of God.
Rome was the hub of political and economic power in ancient Greece and was thus considered the heart of the country.
“Was” and “were” can also appear directly after “and thus” and be grammatically accurate. There are also other points to examine when using “and thus” in grammar.
Is It Grammatically Correct to Say “And Thus”?
It is grammatically accurate to say “and thus” as long as it appears in the middle of a sentence and provides a cause-effect or reason-result statement.
As previously mentioned, “and thus” is a formal phrase we often see in written texts. However, that doesn’t mean that you cannot use it in verbal communication. You may use it in formal speeches or dialogue, but the same rules of written texts apply.
You can say “and thus” to tell your audience about something and inform them about the situation that led to that effect.
- I had a bad night and thus can’t focus at work today.
- She was out of his league, and thus everyone questioned why they were together.
- They were so tired of the toxic work environment, and thus they all resigned.
When Not to Use “and Thus”
You cannot use “and thus” when trying to be informal or relatable. You also cannot use it at the start of a sentence as it provides a link to the previous independent clause within that sentence.
You cannot use “and thus” to give a conclusion to some points made. Usually, “thus” as a standalone word at the start of the sentence can provide this function, and as soon as you use “and thus,” you connect what follows to the last part of the sentence rather than the paragraph or text as a whole.
What Can You Use Instead of “and Thus”?
There are quite a few synonyms that you can use instead of “and thus.” Correct synonyms have to focus on the causal relationship, and thus, words like “therefore,” “hence,” “consequently,” and “ergo” work well.
These synonyms do not always require the conjunction “and” and can appear at the start of the sentence if necessary.
- Barry won the award and thus mocked all the other researchers over their failure.
- Barry won the award and therefore mocked all the other researchers.
- Barry won the award and consequently mocked the other researchers.
When trying to be less formal, you can use phrases like “for that reason” and “because of this.”
- I won the Nobel prize, and because of this, it was my turn to laugh at Barry.
- I won the Nobel prize, and for that reason, I laughed at Barry.
This article was written for strategiesforparents.com.
“And thus” is an interesting phrase because of its formal usage. Still, we use so many other words that show relationships that this one is not necessary unless you are trying to be overly formal.
Adverbs are words that modify our knowledge about verbs and adjectives (source). There is a little trick to help you remember how to spot adverbs: if a word ends in “-ly” and tells us about a verb or adjective, it is likely an adverb.
This is a solid piece of advice, but what about adverbs that do not relate directly to a verb or adjective?
We have conjunctive adverbs for those pesky adverbs that appear in the middle of sentences. Conjunctive adverbs are words or phrases that show the relationship between sentences. Examples of these include “however,” “therefore,” and “instead” (source).
- I knew she was going to lie to me. However, I didn’t have a choice but to trust her.
- We all ordered the same food; therefore, we split the bill evenly.
- Sheldon wanted to go on a train. Instead, they decided to watch a film about trains.
We learn conjunctive adverbs from a young age very quickly, and they tell us about the relationship between sentences and situations. Misusing them can be very frustrating, however.
“And thus” is a conjunctive adverb that shows the causal relationship between the first and second parts of the sentence. It is relatively uncomplicated to use, but there are certain times when using “and thus” is not accurate or the best phrase to use.
If you find yourself confused by any other adverbs, read “Can You Start a Sentence With “Rather”?” for more information.
We covered the basics of “and thus” and how we use it in a sentence. We have covered which situations it is most appropriate for and when you should use it, and thus you now can add it to your growing vocabulary.